Challenge

Photodetection is an essential and integral component of any contemporary LiDAR application. Currently, there are basically two main instrumental solutions available – Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) and Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). Each of them has its own drawbacks: APD’s disadvantage is its relatvely low sensitivity and high level of noise. Whereas the construction of SiPMs is usually a trade-off between low cross-talk and wide dynamic range.

On-market technologies:

  • Trade-off between sensitivity and resistance to bright light
  • No possibility for further optimization

Dephan product:

  • High-sensitivity
  • Resistance to bright light

Solution

The DEPHAN photomultiplier combines APD-like monolithic photosensitive area with a large number of small amplified channels like in SiPM, thus avoiding cross-talk and the need for trenches while simultaneously providing wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and low noise. This combination of parameters ideally suits LiDAR applications by solving its three major problems, namely those of resolution, range and overexposure from daylight, all at scalability of CMOS-compatible technology.

 

On-market

APD

Large photosensitive area

Wide dynamic range

Low sensitivity

Complicated and expensive electronics

SiPM

Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes on common substrate

Low dynamic range

High sensitivity

Cheap electronics

DEPHAN

HD-SiPM

Small amplifield channels integrated into a large photosensitive area

Wide dynamic range

High sensitivity

Cheap electronics

Parameters

DEPHAN offers a totally new device:

Highly sensitive

Resistant to bright light

Simple & Affordable

  • The device combines the best properties of on-market devices and avoids trade-off between high-sensitivity and resistance to bright light
  • Based on semiconductor technology, CMOS-compatible – cost-effective, scalable, supporting arrays and matrices on a wafer
Parameters D-105-BC
(visible range)
D-105-RC
(NIR)
TBD in 2021
(NIR, Gen2)
Units
Photosensitive area 1х1 1х1 1х1 mm х mm
Micro-cell density
(pulsed dynamic range)
4.6 ∙104 4.6 ∙104 7.1 ∙104 per mm2
Fill factor 90 90 87 %
Spectral range 400 to 870 (max 580) 400 to 940 (max 730) 450 to 950 (max 750) nm
PDE 40 @peak sensitivity;
35 @λ=440 nm;
25 @λ=650 nm
35 @peak sensitivity;
20 @λ=780 nm;
10 @λ=905 nm
40 @peak sensitivity;
34 @λ=780 nm;
18 @λ=905 nm
%
Operating voltage 50 to 60 60 to 70 70 to 80 V
Cross talk probability < 1 < 1 < 1 %
Gain  (0.7 to 1.2)∙ 104 (0.7 to 1.2)∙ 104  (0.4 to 1.0)∙ 104
Time resolution FWHM (jitter) < 150 @λ=440 nm < 400 @λ=905nm < 350 @λ=905 nm ps
Threshold sensitivity*;
light pulse<1ns;
@λ=440 nm: 35 to 50
@λ=656 nm: 45 to 65
@λ=780 nm: 50 to 75
@λ=905 nm: 120 to 150
@λ=780 nm: 40 to 65
@λ=905 nm: 100 to 120
photons

*detection probability ≥ 90 %, false detection rate ≤ 1 kHz, 1 GHz bandwidth, room temperature

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